I was getting an error like this when trying to run the configuration wizard for the MS Office SharePoint Server 2010.
In the wizard, I was specifying a domain account with sufficient permissions, but I still got the access denied error. The solution was quite simple, I had forgotten that I was logged into the machine as the local admin account—not a domain account. The config wizard needs to read some info about the domain account you’re using for the setup. When I switched users to my own domain account, the wizard ran successfully.